Glossary of terms used on this site
The removal of tissue or fluid with a needle for examination under a microscope. When a wide needle is used, the procedure is called a core biopsy. When a thin needle is used, the procedure is called a fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
|Negative test result||
A test result that fails to show the specific disease or condition for which the test is being done.
Treatment given before the primary treatment. Examples of neoadjuvant therapy include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy.
An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Neoplasms may be benign (not cancerous), or malignant (cancerous). Also called tumor.
Surgery to remove a kidney or part of a kidney. In a partial nephrectomy, part of one kidney or a tumor is removed, but not an entire kidney. In a simple nephrectomy, one kidney is removed. In a radical nephrectomy, an entire kidney, nearby adrenal gland and lymph nodes, and other surrounding tissue are removed. In a bilateral nephrectomy, both kidneys are removed.
A type of surgery that attempts to save the nerves near the tissues being removed
Cancer that arises in immature nerve cells and affects mostly infants and children.
A tumor that arises in nerve cells.
A nerve problem that causes pain, numbness, tingling, swelling, or muscle weakness in different parts of the body. It usually begins in the hands or feet and gets worse over time. Neuropathy may be caused by physical injury, infection, toxic substances, disease (such as cancer, diabetes, kidney failure, or malnutrition), or drugs, including anticancer drugs. Also called peripheral neuropathy.
An abnormal decrease in the number of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell.
A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that can kill tumor cells or cells infected with a virus. An NK cell is a type of white blood cell. Also called natural killer cell and NK-LGL.
Cancer that has not spread to the lymph nodes.
Cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes.
|Non small cell lung cancer||
A group of lung cancers that are named for the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look under a microscope. The three main types of non-small cell lung cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common kind of lung cancer.
Any of a large group of cancers of the immune system. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur at any age and are often marked by enlarged lymph nodes, fever, and weight loss. There are many different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which can be divided into aggressive (fast-growing) and indolent (slow-growing) types and can be classified as either B-cell or T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas include Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, immunoblastic large cell lymphoma, precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma. T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas include mycosis fungoides, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and precursor T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Lymphomas related to lymphoproliferative disorders following bone marrow or stem cell transplantation are usually B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Prognosis and treatment depend on the stage and type of disease. Also called NHL.